jpgind v0.86

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Preface

Copyright © 2004-2011 Petteri Kettunen.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “Copying This Manual”, subsection“GNU Free Documentation License”.


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1 About

Jpgind is a command-line tool for generating static web galleries from JPEG (Exif) and DSC raw image files (TIFF RAW files are currently not supported). Galleries can be customised with various options and metadata.

Demo galleries:


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2 Invoking jpgind

     jpgind [options] [[directory]...] [[file]...]


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3 Simple examples

Generate a gallery from all JPG files in current working directory entitled “Moon viewing July 15 2002.” Output will be created to a directory named index.

     jpgind --title "Moon viewing July 15 2002" *.JPG

Generate a gallery from all your files under $HOME/Pictures, using thumbnail grid with five columns and three rows on each index page, and sort images by Exif or file date in descending order.

     jpgind --title "All my pictures" -x 5 -y 3 -O sort=chronologic ~/Pictures


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4 Compiling

Prequisities: GCC, GNU Make, wget, curl and texinfo.

Due to legacy reasons, the required external libraries are built and linked statically with the library. That is likely to change in future releases.


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5 Command-line options

--bicubic <on|off>
Switch for bi-cubic interpolation in down-scaling. This is the default method for down-scaling. If this feature is switched off (--bicubic off), then “box” or “Bartlett” filter is used which can only scale down in steps by fixed factor of two. See also options -F/--filter.

Rc file keyword: bicubic; values, on, off.

--c
Show copyleft information and exit.
--css
Specify external CSS file to be used insteadt of the internal one.

Rc file keyword: css.

-d
Print debug messages whilst processing.
-f
Specify filename from which input file or directory names, and optionally user-provided metadata are read. Entries are one per line including all metadata for an entry. Lines starting with the hash character (#) are treated as comments. This option can be repeated. Currently there is a limitation that the file name or any path component can not contain whitespace characters.

Metadata tags are: data, ll, rotate, and title. Values for title and data must be enclosed in double quotes and inside the double quotes proper escaping of special characters is required. See the example below.

          flower1.jpg rotate 180 data "<a href=\"http://localhost/1/\">See more flowers like this.</a>" title "Flower 1"
          flower2.jpg data "<a href=\"http://localhost/2/\">See more flowers like this.</a>" title "Flower 2" rotate 270
          flower3.jpg title "Flower 3" rotate 90 data "<a href=\"http://localhost/3/\">See more flowers like this.</a>"
          flower_collection # a directory of flower photos

Metadata tag ll is for specifying latitude-longitude in decimal format, separated by a comma as shown below.

          flower.jpg ll 43.077634,141.338511

-F <0|1>, --filter <0|1>
Values 0 and 1 set filter used in downscaling to “box” and “Bartlett,” respectively. This option has effect only when bicubic scaling is not used (--bicubic off).
--frame-delay <delay in seconds>
Specify display time for each frame in slideshow movie. Effects frame display time in movies generated with --mpeg option also. If zero and --mpeg is given, each input image is used as a frame in the movie.
-h, --help
Show usage info and exit.
-M <1|2>, --medianfilter <1|2>
Switch on median filtering. Parameters: 1, filter before down-scaling; 2, filtering before and after down-scaling.
--montage
Produce thumbnail index image(s) in the output directory. The grid is 8x16 images per index page and the thumbnail size is fixed.
--mpeg
Create raw materials for a slideshow/movie of input still frames. FFMPEG tool is required for post-processing. You can use option --frame-delay to speficy the interval how long each frame is displayed. Set this --frame-delay value to zero if you aim to create a movie from input images without fadings and transition between frames. The default frame rate for MPEG is 25 frames per second. Therefore the length of the movie in seconds is number of input images divided by the framerate.
-O <extra option>
Set extra parametes in form -O name=value. This option can be repeated. Recognised parameters for name are:
charset
Specify HTML character set. See IANA page http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets for current official names. This parameter can be up to 40 characters long. If this option is not given, default charset is set to UTF-8.

Rc file keyword: charset.

ext
Set HTML file extension.

Rc file keyword: ext.

fastraw
Switch fast raw decoding (dcraw -h) on or off.

Rc file keyword: fastraw; values, on, off.

icc
Specify colour profile file that will be used for all input images. The output profile is locked to sRGB. Some profiles can be found from Popular Photography site. See colour profiling.
iccdir
Specify a directory containing colour profiles. See colour profiling.
order
Specify sort order: asc for ascending (default), desc for descending.

Rc file keyword: order; values, asc, desc.

show-filename
Option to show or hide file name from the image label.

Rc file keyword: show-filename; values, on, off.

sort
Sort input files with one of the following methods.
  • lexicographic: case-insensitive lexicographical (i.e. aphabetical) sort
  • chronologic: Exif timestamp or file modification date if Exif info is not found. In the case of raw format files, file modification date is used.

Example:

               jpgind -O sort=lexicographic *.JPG

Rc file keyword: sort.

square-thumbs
Option to crop thumbnail images to square shape.

Rc file keyword: square-thumbs; values, on, off.


-o <dirname>, --output-dir <dirname>
Specify an alternate output directory name. It can be absolute or relative to current working directory.

Rc file keyword: output-dir.

--progress
If this option is given, information showing the processing progress is printed to standard output.

Rc file keyword: progress; values, on, off.

-q <value>, --quality <value>
This parameter sets the JPEG compression level. Value range is from 0 (best compression, worst quality) to 100 (minimum compression, highest quality).

Rc file keyword: quality.

--rc <filename>
Specify user-defined configuration file. This should be the first option given to have the desired effect together with other options which may be given on the command line. This option can also be used to disable reading the options in the default rc file as in the example below.
          jpgind --rc /dev/null *.JPG

-S <value>, --size <value>
Set the maximum image size for the images which are typically shown on its own page. More specifically, the number specified with this option is the maximum of pixel rows or columns i.e. max(rows,cols). The aspect ratio of the original image is preserved in down-scaling.

Following literal arguments are also recognised: cif, qcif, qvga, qxga, qsxga, qsxga+, quxga, svga, sxga+, sxga, sqcif, uxga, vga, wxga, wsxga+, wuxga, xga.

Rc file keyword: size.

--skip-dir <dirname>
Specify name of directory which is not searched for images files in recursive mode. This option can be repeated to specify more than one directory.

Rc file keyword: skip-dir (can be repeated.)

--stdin
Read input file names and optional metadata from standard input, one entry per line. See option -f.
-T <gallery title>, --title <gallery title>
Specify gallery title string. In case the title contains whitespaces, it must be enclosed in single or double quotes.

Example:

          jpgind -T "Moon viewing July 2001" *.JPG

--unsharp
If this option is given, images are post-processed using so-called “un-sharp” mask. Here it is implemented using scheme

unsharp = original + k * (original - smoothed)

where k is a constant.

Rc file keyword: unsharp; values, on, off.

--version
Print version information and exit.
-x <value>
Sets number of columns in index image thumbnail grid.

Rc file keyword: x.

-y <value>
Sets number rows in index image thumbnail grid.

Rc file keyword: y.

-z
Extract Exif thumbnails to the current working directory using unique scrabled names.
-Z
Take first input image, scale it down and write JPEG image to stdout.


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6 Configuration file

Here is a sample .jpgindrc (or jpgindrc.ini in case of Wintel) file.

     email http://www.iki.fi/petterik/mail.php
     style default
     size 800
     thumbsize 128
     exifinfo simple
     x 4
     y 3
     quality 95
     bicubic on
     unsharp on
     progress on
     skip-dir index
     skip-dir index_all
     iccdir /home/debian/pictures/icc


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7 Colour profiling

Colour profiling depends on a compile-time flag USE_LCMS. There are three ways to use a ICC input profile for your images. The output profile is locked to “web safe” sRGB.

  1. Speficy a profile file by using the -O icc=FILE option. This input profile is added to JPEG and raw images alike.
  2. Specify a directory containing profile files by using the -O iccdir=DIR option. The profiles are applied to raw format photos only. The files in the specified directory must be in the following format:
              MAKER MODEL.icc
    
    Thats is, maker name in uppercase letters, a space, camera model in uppercase letters, and file extension '.icc'.
  3. If any of the two options above are not given, some internal rules are tried. If an appropriate file is found from the file system, it is used. Currently only some Nikon specific rules are implemented.


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8 Feedback or author URL

This program has a simple spam-prevention mechanism by scrambling the specified plain feedback email address using Javascript. The feedback address can also be an URL.

Examples:

     jpgind --email user@example.com ...


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9 Reporting bugs

Authttp://www.iki.fi/petterik/


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10 Download

Source code.

Daily snapshot.

This project's history is recorded in its Freshmeat page. See also the ChangeLog,


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11 License

jpgind – static web gallery generator. Copyright © 2002-2011 Petteri Kettunen.

Jpgind is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under the GNU General Public License conditions, See GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE.

The font bitmaps used in this program are derived from /efont/ project which is distributed under the BSD license and copyrighted as follows:

Copyright © 2000-2001 /efont/ The Electronic Font Open Laboratory. All rights reserved.

The MD5 code included in this program is copyrighted as follows.

Copyright © 2001-2003 Christophe Devine (license: GPL)

The raw photo data decoder is Copyright (C) 1997-2008 Dave Coffin (license: free)

The CSS stylesheet and icons are from The current stylesheet is based in bbgallery and copyrighted as follows.

Copyright © 2001 Bodo Bauer <bb at bb-zone.com (license: GPL)

The strcasecmp function is taken from GtkHx (license: GPL)

The colour management routines use `Little cms' library Copyright © 1998-2010 Marti Maria (license: X11)


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12 Acknowledgements

Thanks to Independent JPEG Group for JPEG library, Frans Slothouber for directory tree recursion routine, Janne Kotka for initial CSS design, Paul D. Bourke for TIFF file writing function and for formulating scaling by bicubic interpolation.


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13 Related software and projects


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GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE

Version 2, June 1991
     Copyright © 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA
     
     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

Preamble

The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software—to make sure the software is free for all its users. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it to your programs, too.

When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.

To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.

For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.

We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the software.

Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations.

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The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow.

  1. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. The “Program”, below, refers to any such program or work, and a “work based on the Program” means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in the term “modification”.) Each licensee is addressed as “you”.

    Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.

  2. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty; and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program.

    You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.

  3. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
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    These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.

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    In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License.

  4. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
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Appendix: How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the “copyright” line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

     one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.
     Copyright (C) yyyy  name of author
     
     This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
     it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
     the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
     (at your option) any later version.
     
     This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
     but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
     MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
     GNU General Public License for more details.
     
     You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
     along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
     Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

     Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) 19yy name of author
     Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
     This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
     under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.

The hypothetical commands ‘show w’ and ‘show c’ should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may be called something other than ‘show w’ and ‘show c’; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items—whatever suits your program.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school, if any, to sign a “copyright disclaimer” for the program, if necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:

     Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
     `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
     
     signature of Ty Coon, 1 April 1989
     Ty Coon, President of Vice

This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General Public License instead of this License.


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GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.2, November 2002
     Copyright © 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA
     
     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
  1. PREAMBLE

    The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document free in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

    This License is a kind of “copyleft”, which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

    We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.

  2. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

    This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The “Document”, below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as “you”. You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.

    A “Modified Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.

    A “Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

    The “Invariant Sections” are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

    The “Cover Texts” are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.

    A “Transparent” copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not “Transparent” is called “Opaque”.

    Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ascii without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

    The “Title Page” means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, “Title Page” means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

    A section “Entitled XYZ” means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, “Endorsements”, or “History”.) To “Preserve the Title” of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section “Entitled XYZ” according to this definition.

    The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.

  3. VERBATIM COPYING

    You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

    You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.

  4. COPYING IN QUANTITY

    If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

    If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

    If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

    It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.

  5. MODIFICATIONS

    You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

    1. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
    2. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
    3. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
    4. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
    5. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
    6. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
    7. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
    8. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
    9. Preserve the section Entitled “History”, Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled “History” in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
    10. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the “History” section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
    11. For any section Entitled “Acknowledgements” or “Dedications”, Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
    12. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
    13. Delete any section Entitled “Endorsements”. Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.
    14. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled “Endorsements” or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
    15. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

    If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

    You may add a section Entitled “Endorsements”, provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

    You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

    The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

  6. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

    You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

    The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

    In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled “History” in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled “History”; likewise combine any sections Entitled “Acknowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You must delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements.”

  7. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

    You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

    You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.

  8. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

    A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

    If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.

  9. TRANSLATION

    Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

    If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or “History”, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.

  10. TERMINATION

    You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

  11. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

    The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

    Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  year  your name.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with...Texts.” line with this:

         with the Invariant Sections being list their titles, with
         the Front-Cover Texts being list, and with the Back-Cover Texts
         being list.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.


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